Two innovative technologies, LISP and Nexus, have come together to create a one-of-a-kind scalable blockchain that many believe is the next generation blockchain solution the industry has been waiting for. LISP (Locator/ID Separation Protocol) was created by Silicon Valley’s, Dino Farinacci, to revolutionize scaling the Internet. The Nexus Hybrid Blockchain is being developed by twenty-eight year old Founder, Colin Cantrell, to solve the challenges of first generation blockchain architecture. Together, these two pioneers are advancing blockchain technology on the network layer in a way that has never been done before.
Dino is a software engineer and the largest individual contributor to running code on the Internet. He was the first ever Cisco Fellow appointed in 1997 and currently holds over 40 Internet and networking related patents. For the last 30 years, Dino has been a member of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), which develops standards for the Internet we use every day. When Dino left Cisco in 2012, he wanted to pursue and focus on next generation use-cases for this new LISP technology. LISP is currently being tested by tech giants such as Comcast, Bloomberg, NBC and Cisco.
In 2017, he met Nexus Founder, Colin Cantrell, who is a self taught coder creating the Nexus blockchain from the ground up. Dino recognized the blockchain community was neglecting the real value of the network layer and making the same mistakes that were made when designing the Internet. Nexus was open to experiment, trial and deploy a LISP overlay, while Dino was eager to apply his networking experience to blockchain. The collaboration between Dino and Nexus was a perfect fit. Two years later, what started out as a passion project for Dino, is now the next generation scalable blockchain set to release this summer. Nexus Director of Business Development, Brian Vena said, “What Dino and Colin have created not only advances blockchain technology, but it will heavily impact our daily lives when it comes to the future of IoT and 5G. It also finally provides businesses a cost effective way to integrate a scalable blockchain solution with their current systems through easy to use plug and play APIs and advanced contracts that can be written in any coding language.”
The original Internet architecture was not built to handle the growing number of devices being used around the world or their ability to roam. This same architecture has now run out of IPv4 addresses (the Internet equivalent of phones numbers) which are required for devices and services to connect to the Internet. In order to solve this problem, Dino built the LISP overlay architecture to support both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses which will help make the Internet scale. With LISP, separating identity and location changes how you use the Internet. It allows you to roam, use multiple connections at one time and scale the core of the Internet. Scaling the core of the Internet is crucial so it can grow and support more devices and newer applications that are coming. “Today, people want performance, scale and accountability, and that’s exactly what LISP and the Nexus Hybrid Blockchain create together,” said Dino.
Nexus is the only blockchain using LISP, allowing it to scale along with the future advancements of the Internet and the new devices that connect to the network. The addition of LISP gives Nexus a scaling advantage by selecting the shortest paths between locations of Nexus nodes, allowing them to be located anywhere on the Internet, along with residential environments, cloud providers and mobile carriers. Using LISP also allows Nexus connections to remain active while the node moves around or temporarily goes off the network so re-connection and application state synchronization can be avoided. This increases the speed and performance of a Nexus node that no other blockchain in the world has.
The integration of Nexus and the LISP overlay also helps achieve scalability through reduced network latency in a truly unique manner. Just like the Internet, the 32-bit IPv4 address used by most network protocols will be unable to support the future growth of networked devices. Nexus and the LISP overlay will use 128-bit IPv6 EID addresses that can accommodate far more devices on the network. When asked about the future of LISP and Nexus, Dino believes the partnership will take advantage of more LISP features such as multi-homing, mobility, better security through the LISP mapping system’s access control features, crypto-EIDs for anti-spoofing and multicast miner pools. Dino says, “What the LISP layer provides you is an up to date network database and the Nexus Blockchain provides you with an immutable tracking database, the two can be used to provide robust and comprehensive data analytics. This is a data lake of information for machine learning models at multiple layers in the software stack that we have never seen before.”
Nexus has spent the last two years meeting with key executive decision makers and gathering market research in the areas of fraud, supply chain, digital rights and identity. This information has led Nexus to adapt their technical architecture and build a hybrid blockchain solution that allows businesses to utilize the benefits of both a public and private blockchain. The Nexus architecture solves the challenges of scalability and integration for a vastly improved user experience. APIs allow advanced contracts to be written in any language, ensuring easy integration, reduced development costs and a more efficient developer experience. With the Nexus mainnet set to release this summer, businesses looking for alternatives to first generation blockchains will now have a viable solution through the combination of Nexus and LISP.
Article by John Saviano, Nexus
For more information on Nexus and LISP, please visit:
this edition of the TAO update series, I will explain what has been
completed thus far, what is left to do, and what you can do with Tritium
after you read this article. So, let’s get started with the usual git pull origin master.
As you can see, there has been an additional 58,627 lines of code since the last TAO update, which equates to roughly 3 months of solid coding since the last git pull. This averages out to around 651 lines of new code every day since the end of October. Anyhow, let’s begin by first taking a look at the acronym to our framework: TAO
This word comes from a Chinese classical text, The Tao Te Ching,
which has been studied by some of the greatest philosophers of our
time. It represents an idea that contains the principles of balance, and
order in the greater concepts of the mind.
Tao is hidden, and has no name; but it is the Tao which is skillful at
imparting (to all things what they need) and making them complete”
Lower Level Library
The Lower Level Library (LLL) is the foundation of the TAO, which includes: viz. Crypto, Database, and Protocol (Network Layer).
Lower Level Crypto
is not much to report here, other than cleaning up some memcpy from the
Skein and Keccak functions, along with the research of some promising
candidates for a lattice based signature scheme. Right now the NIST
competition is in the first round of the review process. We will observe
how this evolves over the next year to identify which candidates to
the future, we may try out hybrid signature schemes on a test network
to see the effectiveness of lattice and elliptic curve hybrid
signatures. The data and computational overhead would be higher, but the
security parameters of our public keys would inherit a higher degree of
quantum resistance compared to that provided from our current use of
Skein and Keccak.
Lower Level Database
The following new components have been added to the Lower Level Database:
Binary Hash Map
— This is a hashmap with very low memory footprint and on disk indexing,
which handles bucket collisions at O(n) reverse iterations (linear
time), and is designed for write intensive applications. The write
capacity has peaked at around 450k writes / second, with reads peaking
at 25k reads / second from disk, and 1.4m reads per second if cached.
Binary LRU Cache
— LRU stands for Least Recently Used, and means that the cache will keep
only the elements that have been recently used, and discards the
elements that are the oldest. This makes for an efficient cache
implementation compared to FIFO (First in first out)
Transaction Journal — This
is an anti corruption measure when handling an ACID transaction that
recovers the database from invalid states in the case of power failures,
program crashes, or random restarts.
one of these components is a part of the modular framework, that you
will be able to see if you go to the src/LLD/cache, src/LLD/keychain,
src/LLD/templates folders. The most exciting piece is the addition of
the Transaction Journal. Before I give a deeper explanation of this, let
us review what is meant by the term ‘ACID’.
Atomicity — All transactions are seen as individual units that together must complete as a whole.
Consistency — All transactions must bring the database from one consistent state to another.
Isolation — Transaction
reads and writes with concurrent execution must leave the database in a
valid state, as if it was being processed in series.
Durability — Once
a transaction is committed, it must stay so even in the event of a
power failure. This usually means committing the transaction to disk.
huh? I can explain this some more. Think of a database transaction as a
commitment of many pieces of data that synchronize together in an
amalgamation of information. To understand this better, let us use a
real life example such as Kim will only give John an apple, if Carry
gives Sue a Peach. If this was a database transaction, what this would
mean is that all the prerequisites would need to be committed together,
and if any of them were to fail, the entire transaction would fail.
Let’s combine this with an ACID expression.
Atomicity — Kim, John, Carry, and Sue (individual units) exchanging fruit (the whole).
Consistency — Carry -> give Peach to Sue -> then Kim -> gives John an Apple
— If carry and John both execute the giving of their Peach and Apple
close to the same time, the ordering must be correct in the consistency
sequence, which means the peach must be given to Sue before the apple is
given to John.
— If Carry and John agree to the exchange, but never fully execute by
exchanging the Peach and the Apple due to an error, such as the apple
being forgotten by Kim, then the Apple and the Peach may never reach
John or Sue. In this case, the commitment existed (in memory), but it
never obtained durability since the physical object did not complete
I hope this above helps you understand the importance of an ACID
transaction, of which one of the most important pieces is the
‘Durability’ component. When implemented with the proper logic, this can
result in a database that cannot be corrupted, even under conditions of
power failure. Let me explain how this is achieved.
The Transaction Journal
the implementation of the Transaction Journal, every sequence of a
transaction was executed in memory. In this way the database only
records the state accompanied by the pending disk write, once the
transaction has committed. Transaction journaling introduces an on disk
checkpointing system that detects if there was an interruption during
the transaction commit process. When the database re-initializes, it is
able to detect any corruption, allowing the journal to be used to
restore the database to the most recent transaction checkpoint even
across many database instances. Therefore, at the sacrifice of a bit of
speed, we can achieve higher levels of durability for the database
engine. The latest statistics in our 100k Read and Write test ran as low
as 0.33 seconds with the binary hash map, down from the 0.86 seconds when using the binary file map.
Lower Level Protocol
I’m sure many of you remember, our last test ran as high as 200,000 requests / second. I’m happy to report that the new numbers stand at:
request is a message from one computer sent to another computer which is
generally a request for a piece of data on the remote computer, such as
a web page for a web server. Our latest test above shows the peak
performance of the Lower Level Protocol at 452,171 requests / s, over a
double increase in performance compared to the last test we submitted.
The above demonstrates the capabilities of the Network layer, without Ledger
layer validation which confirms that the network can handle very large
workloads. It is important to have efficiency in all parts of a system
in order for it to scale effectively. The efficiency of an application
comes directly from the level of physical resources required to perform
the task at hand.
ledger contains two components to its processing, the transaction
objects and the blocks that act to commit transactions to disk, and
therefore the database. Think of any blockchain as a verification
database system, where the data is required to be processed before it is
allowed to be written to the disk. Along with this set pre-processing,
every single node in the network must agree on the outcome of the
process, arriving at the same state in a synchronized ACID transaction which is carried by a block. In the case of Nexus, we follow a similar model. However, we perform the Consistency preprocessing before allowing for synchronized Isolation and Atomicity, and perform the post-processing verification afterwards as the final block receipt, allowing for Durability.
tritium transaction object contains aspects of the ledger for pre and
post processing, and the register pre states and post states, and
finally the operations payload that is responsible for mutating the
software stack for Tritium has come a long way in recent months. Now
that we have a foundation provided by the Lower Level Database and Lower
Level Protocol, it has been fun to plug in some of the features that
form the layers above. Below is a more recent stress test that verifies a
block that is at full capacity (approximately 2MB). This block as you
can see contained 32,252 transactions, and processed in 647 ms.
The software stack for Tritium has come a long way in recent months. Now that we have a foundation provided by the Lower Level Database and Lower Level Protocol, it has been fun to plug in some of the features that form the layers above. Below is a more recent stress test that verifies a block that is at full capacity (approximately 2MB). This block as you can see contained 32,252 transactions, and processed in 647 ms.
test verified the time required for ‘post-processing’ which is the
processing required after a block is received and is then added to the
chain. The required time for ‘pre-processing’ which is the processing
required before a block is received, was not included in this benchmark
test. Let’s dig a little bit deeper into what all this means, and how
these specific elements are prerequisite to Amine.
is the processing that is required for an object before it becomes a
part of the ledger. This will generally be checking for conflicts within
the database system such as spends or register pre-states, and then
more complex pre-processing which would be signature verification. It is
important to note that our tests have shown that signature verification
is the biggest bottleneck in the processing of any transaction or
contract in Tritium. Since we use a 512-bit standard for key sizes which
raises our security to around 2²⁵⁶ bits (2¹²⁸ for Bitcoin, since ECC
only retains about half of the key length in usable security due to
different types of attacks), we have more signature data that is
required to be processed when a transaction is received.
in Tritium will be performed through the memory pool. Since Tritium
blocks do not include the whole transaction object, they only contain
references to objects that they are committing to disk (think of a block
as a sort of ACID
transaction). This means that if a block is submitted that contains a
txid (transaction i.d.) that has never been publicly known by the nodes
on the network, this block will not be able to propagate until the
receiving nodes are able to run the pre-processing for that particular
txid. Consequently, if a miner tried to submit a malicious transaction
in a block as an attempt to double spend a transaction already accepted
in the memory pool, they would find it increasingly difficult to get it
added to the main chain (i.e. verified by validating nodes). This is
because none of the nodes would have the pre-processing data required to
accept this block, and that their conflicting transaction would in most
cases fail to be accepted with it being that it had a direct conflict
with another transaction that had already passed preprocessing.
Preprocessing in Amine
will be aggregated into a two processing layers, namely Trust and
Miners. This means that Trust nodes will be mainly providing
preprocessing to the network, and miners providing the post-processing.
is the processing required when a block is received, in order to fully
commit components of the data, and change the register pre-states into
their post states with verified checksums. The example above was pure
post-processing which showed that our post-processing layers scale quite
nicely, with a maximum of around 40–50k tx/s if split into a two-tier
(pre/post) processing system. Our two-tier processing system will be the
main aspect of the Amine architecture upgrade, along with additional operations and registers, and deeper/more advanced LISP functionality (we will explain how LISP shards will function in a later update).
With Obsidian, the two-tier process will become a three-tier process, which when integrated will have pre-processing (L1 processing channels), post-processing (L2 trust channels), and hardening (L3 distributed mining).
It is important to understand how the present Tritium architecture is
setting the foundation for all that is to follow. As many of you will
know, as with any undertaking, once the foundation is set, it is not
easily changed unless one takes apart the entire system. This is why it
was so important to give Tritium the time it needed.
pre-processing and post-processing is divided into two tiers as well,
the pre-state and the post-state. This is important to know, so that you
can understand how the registers act to modulate their states.
Understanding this will help discover some of the benefits of pre-states
in a chain, and how a node can prune prior pre-state data based on the
verification of a transaction in a block object. A register post-state
could be considered one individual unit of Atomicity.
pre-states contain the current database state of the given register
before the operations execute. It is packaged into a binary format
inside the transaction object as the means of verifying that the initial
claimed state is the same state that the current network contains of
benefits of this come two-fold, one that you are able to rollback the
chain without having to iterate back an unspecified number of blocks to
find the state mutation of the previous register, and two that you are
able to know the state of the register without having to calculate all
its previous states. This adds additional benefits, such as being able
to run nodes in ‘lighter’ mode, where nodes are only required to verify
chain headers (which contain references to all of the transactions in a
block), to know that a transaction with a given pre-state was included
in a block. This allows for ‘light’ verification of a pre-state, i.e
that the transaction was confirmed with the consensus of the network at a
given block height, and therefore is indeed valid.
the growth of the network and size of the ledger (one aspect of scaling
to consider), we can prune the data held by the ledger by removing old
pre-states, which lowers the data requirement and creates a more
efficient and sustainable network over an extended period of time. By
implementing this architecture now, we won’t end up with an over-baked
architecture in the future that can’t handle the overwhelming volume of
data that has been processed in the past.
When you hear of projects boasting 100k tx/s, or even 1M tx/s, let’s look at what this really entails:
On average, a tritium transaction will be a minimum of 144 bytes, and a maximum of 1168 bytes.
Let us take a best case scenario, with a normal OP::DEBIT / OP::CREDIT being around 24 bytes, so an example of a transaction that is 166 bytes.
Let us now multiply this number by 100,000 transactions which equals 16,600,000 bytes per second, or 16 MB per second. This means your internet connection would need to support at a minimum 16MB per second, or a 128 Mbps connection.
Now beyond that, let us look at the damage as it compounds. 16MB per second multiplied by 86,400 seconds (1 day) is 1,382,400 MB, which is 1.3 TB per day. Multiply this by 365 for a one year period and we have 504 TB per year consumed. This is obviously not possible on consumer grade hardware.
above proof shows that the claims of such grandiose scale are most
likely rooted in either folly, or malarky. For us, our pre-processing
and post-processing systems, LISP data shards, Lower Level Database, and
register Pre-States will help scaling significantly, but there is no
way of knowing the exact scale that will be able to be achieved until
demonstrated in real world conditions, over a long period of time. Right
now, our results are promising, seeing that we are achieving a
reasonable scale in post-processing, and managing architecture that is
able to shard the pre-processing to exceed the 4.3k tx/s bottleneck from signature verification.
register has a pre-state which is used by the operations layer for
execution to move the register into its post-state. A post-state is what
is recorded in the register database as the new state of the register
after the transaction has completed. In order to not weigh down the
register script (some of the binary data packed into a transaction), we
included what is called a post-state checksum at the end of a register
pre-state. Therefore, any validating node will compare their calculated
post-state to the post-state checksum that was included with the
benefits of this, is that a transacting node is required to do the
calculations themselves, to prove that they have done honest work. Other
validating nodes verify this calculation by comparing their new
register state checksum to the post-state checksum included in the
those that are able to house extra data on their hard-drive, their node
can be enabled to show the history of the registers without much
processing required. Since the keychain object that is used for the
register database is a binary hash map, you can enable it to operate in
APPEND mode, which will append new data to the end of the corresponding
database files, enabling a user to reverse iterate from the end of a
hashmap collision, which will show the sequence of the register history.
This is very useful for registers used in supply chains or other
‘history’ related chains, such as the transfer of ownership of titles
and deeds for example.
are a few different types of registers that determine what types of
operations can be executed on them. As you know from the tritium white
paper there are object registers and state registers. Let’s briefly
explain what each one is for:
state register is one that holds the state for a component of an
external application, with no specification on the data format which
means that specialized operations can not be applied to these register,
— A raw register is a register with given number of bytes that can be
written to or appended to at any time. It is the most versatile type of
register with no security parameters applied to it. Each WRITE is immutable, but with it being RAW, it can only be overwritten by the owner of it. WRITE is only permissible if done from the signature chain that is the current owner.
— An append register is similar to a raw register in that it is created
with a given number of bytes, but this type of register can only have an
operation applied to it to change the data state. This means that in the
database itself, the original data always exists before it, and so does
the history of all APPEND operations. A WRITE operation on this type of register will fail, even if done by the current owner. Therefore, an APPEND
register has security parameters associated with it that make it useful
for applications that would like to be able to update a register
without losing the data that existed before it. This makes every APPEND immutable but able to be modified.
TYPE::READONLY — This type of register is useful for a ‘write once’ type of register. It is only possible to use the ‘OP::REGISTER’
operation for this type, since it can only be written to once. This
would be similar to a ‘const’ type in any language, and contains
security properties that are useful for certificates of authenticity,
titles, deeds, or contracts that the creator/publisher would like never
to be modified.
registers are more specialized, as it is necessary for the operations
layer to be able to recognize the data type that they contain. This is
useful for specialized operations that require knowledge of the format
of the data that the register contains. The following Objects are
defined and useable in the current source code.
— This is a specialized register that contains details regarding
someone’s account. An account can contain the balance of any type of
token, as it is denoted by a token identifier. Token identifier 0 is a
reserved identifier and is used for the native NXS token.
— This is a specialized register that contains the details of a token,
and claims that token identifier for use of the specific token. This
register contains information regarding the significant figures of a
token, and other parameters to define the total supply, and the total
supply that has been made available to the public.
operations layer now contains a foundational set of processes, which
act as the ‘Primitive’ operations. These together allow the creation of
records, history, tokens, transfers, and non-fungible tokens. Let us go
through each operation one by one, to explain what each one is capable
operational code creates a new register with a memory address assigned
to it. The memory address must be unique, and will index the data of the
register. Think of it as an abstracted memory address that comes from
getting the memory location of a variable (in the programming language
C/C++, this would be with the symbol ‘&’ which is an abstract of a
machine address), but it lives in the Nexus Blockchain. This will be
further abstracted towards Amine, when addresses will not only be ‘locally accessible, but will be ’network accessible’.
Though replicating the exact same state across the system does provide
added levels of redundancy, it evidently limits the potential of the
system to scale. Creating shards of the data work load into ‘network accessible’ groups
is therefore necessary, where specialized processing is performed by
different groups and types of nodes, whilst retaining the levels of
redundancy that replication provides.
specific addressing is one of the innovations that is designed to solve
the data overhead problem outlined in the above section regarding
scaling. The two most notable bottlenecks that limit scaling are
signature verification and the increasing amount of data overhead that
compounds very quickly as volume increases. A scalable system is not one
that can simply ‘process’ X many transactions per second, but one that
can still function after processing X many transactions per seconds for
years on end. Even if one were to use conventional data structures that
go as low as O(log n), when the system scales to billions of keys, the
processing can still become quite large, especially when indexing from
This primitive operation initiates a ‘write’ on a register, which overwrites all the data of the pre-state with the new data of the post-state. It has certain limitations such as the register must be a TYPE::RAW
type, and the total number of bytes being written must be the same as
what it had prior. This type of operation is generally best suited for
applications that are submitting raw data into the ledger, to enable the
immutable storage of certain events such as submitting a proof hash
into the public ledger from a hybrid system, or having their application
require certain JSON to be submitted into a register
This primitive operation acts on a register of TYPE::APPEND,
and adds data to the end of the register, without modifying the
original data. Useful examples of this operation would be, flagging a
title to that is claimed by an insurance company, or updating specifics
about an item along a supply chain. Since the original data is always
retained in the append sequence, updates to a register via OP::APPEND
provide a useful audit and history mechanism.
allows the ownership of a register to be transferred from one signature
chain to another. A transfer can also be instantiated to another
register such as a TYPE::TOKEN
if someone would like a token to govern the ownership of a register.
This is how joint ownership can be provided between individuals, as the TYPE::TOKEN
then represents the ownership. This can also be useful for showing the
chain of custody between parties of a supply chain. If one wants to
create non-fungible tokens, this would be the method that is used to
transfer the ownership of the non-fungible token, with the non-fungible
token generally being a TYPE::READONLY
register with an identifier specifying parameters regarding an object.
This could be a simple digital item with JSON specifications, and the
transfer operation would be the proof of ownership of that digital item
or non-fungible token.
operation is responsible for the commitment of funds from one account
to another. It is quite like the ‘authorize’ of a debit card
transaction. When this operation is instantiated, the funds do not move
to the receiving account until the other user (the receiver) issues
their credit. The acceptance of the transaction by the receiver
completes the commitment. This operation works only on a TYPE::ACCOUNT object register, and can handle the debiting from any type of token by any identifier.
operation is responsible for the final commitment of funds from one
account to another. Together the debit and credit produce a ‘two-way
signature’, which reduces the chance of funds being lost due to the use
of an incorrect address. If the funds are not accepted by the receiver
within a specified time-window, they are then redeemable by the OP::DEBIT
issuer. Therefore, funds will never be lost if sent to an invalid
address. Another additional benefit of this is allowing a user to reject
funds sent to their account if there is question of who the funds came
from. It also provides the option to generate a whitelist of addresses
from which the user will automatically accept transactions from. This is
important for monetary safety, as if you receive a mysterious deposit
in your account, there is no knowing who or why it reached you.
What are the next operations?
next two operations are very important, as they unlock the ‘validation
scripts’ which act as small computer programs that define the movement
of NXS. Validation scripts enable the full potential of the operations
layer, allowing functions such as the decentralized exchange of assets
to tokens, tokens to tokens, irrevocable trusts, programmable accounts,
The validate function will execute the corresponding OP::REQUIRE
with the necessary parameters. If the validate executes to true, then
the required will be satisfied and therefore the validated transaction
will set a boolean expression that will be required to evaluate to true
in order for a transaction to be claimable. Such an example would be OP::REQUIRE TIMESTAMP GREATER_THAN1549220657, meaning that a corresponding transaction would not be able to execute until the timestamp has been reached.
Introducing the DEX
The DEX will work as a native extension of the OP::REQUIRE and OP::VALIDATE operations. It can be thought of as this:
User A wishes to sell 55 of Token Identifier 77. They want to sell it for Token Identifier 0 (NXS).
They choose their price: OP::DEBIT <from-account> <claim-account> 55 OP::REQUIRE TIMESTAMP LESS_THAN 1549220657 AND OP::DEBIT <my-account> 10.
In this above script <my-account> will be an account with identifier 0, and <from-account> will be of token identifier 77.
User B wishes to buy the 55 of Token ID 77. They send a transaction such as: OP::VALIDATE <txid> OP::DEBIT <from-account> <to-account> 10
Since this includes an OP::VALIDATE, it triggers the validation of the corresponding OP::REQUIRE submitting the parameters it is verifying. Since the OP::DEBIT was one of the parameters to the OP::REQUIRE, this will evaluate to true, satisfying the validation script.
User A can now submit a transaction: OP::CREDIT <txid> <claim-account> 55
User B can now submit a transaction OP::CREDIT <txid> <claim-account> 10
the above sequence, 4 transactions are executed to facilitate the
decentralized exchange between two different types of tokens. This
process can also be programmed for the decentralized exchange of an
asset to a token, or even an asset to an asset. I will explain more on
how this works and how we see the growth of the DEX in the next TAO
API as it stands contains two types, Accounts and Supply. The
implementation details for now are therefore for the purpose of
demonstration only, using only a simple combination of operations such
as OP::APPEND, OP::TRANSFER, and OP::REGISTER, for example.
Please keep your eyes peeled for additional API calls that will be
shown in the API documentation. I will explain how to interact with the
Use a web browser to access the JSON responses.
can use a web browser to make API requests to your Tritium node. This
is achieved by submitting a GET request to the API endpoint. This will
always be the IP address of the node, and port 8080 followed by
An example would be:
above request will log you into the API and returns a session
identifier. The session identifier should be included in all subsequent
requests to the API for methods that require authorization. Your PIN is
required for any transaction requiring authorization to ensure that even
in a case where your username and password were compromised, your PIN
will still be required in order to access your account. This gives
similar properties to 2FA that most login systems utilize today.
Create a login page in your website powered by the Tritium daemon
can embed a custom HTML form into your website to use a Tritium daemon
as a secondary login system that gives verification properties to your
web service. In the future, a login over the API will also trigger a
unique EID that is coupled with the login, making your service immutable
to IP spoofing. The API handles application/x-www-form-urlencoded , so make sure to include your parameters in your form as follows:
page you are sent to afterwards will include the JSON response data
that includes the genesis ID and the session identifier to be used for
all subsequent calls to the API that require authorization. This way you
can give a user secure access to their signature chain through your
service node in your online service. Importantly this gives users a way
to access their sig chain without needing to run a full node, and
without giving up custodianship of their funds and account information.
Embed contracts into your web application.
Since the API supports application/x-www-form-urlencoded,
you are able to embed any contract functionality into your existing web
application, either by forwarding forms through the API and applying a
forwarding url to pass through, or by making custom forms that use the POST aspect of the API to process webforms. The above HTML example is a basic webform which can be integrated with your existing login system. To extend this, you can make calls to the API via AJAX
or more complex forms inside your system. This means that to build with
Nexus Advanced Contracts, all you need is to hire a web developer who
is able to ‘plug and play’ the correct sequence of API calls into your
Use contracts or tokens in your regular desktop application
The API also supports application/json to make requests to the API via any of our provided Software Development Kits (SDKs), so that your native application can take advantage of the API. Currently, we provide a Python SDK for use in any external python application, which can be found in the repository in the folder named ‘SDK’.
We would like to encourage developers to build software development
kits in their languages of choice for the API and contribute to the open
source development of Nexus.
Please refer to the following API documentation for up to date documentation on all API’s and calls that are available:
As any new call is implemented for -testnet or -private
mode, the corresponding documentation will be included. Please give
feedback if you find any information difficult to understand, and we
will modify the documentation to communicate it in a clearer manner
Logical / Interface
are making progress on the App Store, which will be a developer
friendly area to buy, sell and share Nexus apps. Our current design is
‘module’ based. However, this is only the first iteration of the App
Store. We will give more details on how the App Store will develop, and
how we will provide security to the applications supported by the App
Request for new standards
Standards in the API and requests for new calls can be formally submitted and discussed on this mailing list here: [email protected].
Requests to lower layers such as new register types or operations can
be submitted to the same location. Please do give feedback if you find
anything you believe could be improved.
Command-line Flags Available
following flags are available for use with the Tritium Daemon. Some are
experimental and are undergoing debugging, while others are hardened
and are ready for use.
-fastsync (experimental) — this flag will reduce your required synchronization time by a factor of 2.
— sync your tritium node on the mainnet with legacy rules. This will
allow you to run a Tritium node on the mainnet, which gives you access
to all the nice Tritium features such as sub second load time, quick
synchronization time, and database stability
— run your node in private mode to access the API functionality and
build local contracts. post-processing is done via a private block, and
clears in sub-second intervals
-legacy — use legacy specific RPC formatting for nodes that need to retain backwards compatible formatting
add foreign indexes for all blocks by height as well as by hash, allows
the indexing of blocks by height from disk, but requires extra disk
run your node in testnet mode over LISP or the regular underlay. This
will synchronize you to the test network, and require mining to produce
valid blocks and commit post-processing data from your API calls.
repository has specific semantics for each branch. The following list
will briefly describe the purpose of each branch, and what they mean for
you are testing:
Personal — any branch that is named after a user such as viz, jack, scottsimon, paul, or dino. We recommend NOT building from a personal branch, as the code you pull will be incomplete or in development.
Merging — this branch is used to merge code between developers. Any code that exists on merging is still considered ‘unstable’, so if you decide to test off of the merging branch, do so with a debugger (debug instructions below). We recommend NOT using this code unless you are a qualified tester or developer.
— this branch is used for pre-releases. This means that code is in Beta,
and is ready for wider public testing. Once code reaches staging, we
will periodically include pre-release candidates and binaries with
revisions and stability fixes. This branch is for public testing before
the release of official binaries.
— this branch will be the least updated, so if you are looking for the
most recent code, any of the aforementioned branches will keep you up to
date. Code is only pushed to master when a FULL
release is made, accompanied by a release candidate, binaries, and a
change log and description. The code on master can only be merged from
pre-releases in staging.
First, you will need to have a debugger handy. If you are on Linux, make sure to have gdb installed. This can be installed via: sudo apt-get install gdb
For OSX, the debugger will be included with your X-Code command-line tools named lldb
Next, make sure to build the source clean by issuing this command: make -f makefile.cli clean
Next compile it with: make -j 8 -f makefile.cli ENABLE_DEBUG=1
Once this completes, you will need to start Tritium up with your debugger such as: gdb nexus
This will then enter you into a new command-line console, in which you want to type: run -beta -fastsync -gdb
the -gdb flag, the daemon will close if you press the return key, due
to the debugger generally catching all the signals before the
If you ever run across a point where the program crashes, get the backtrace by issuing the following command: bt
Take this backtrace and submit it to the #dev channel in slack for assessment.
you have already been testing or are looking to start helping test the
core, I would like to extend a big thank you for all your help!
Check out docker if you want to deploy nodes over LISP. You can find docker documentation here:
that is about all I have to report as of now, I hope that you continue
to watch the progress on our repositories, continue to give us feedback,
and of course, have fun doing it! Remember, if you’re not having fun,
you’re not doing what you love, so on that note, I will leave you to
ponder on what it is that brings you the greatest joy. In the meantime:
Enterprise adoption is instrumental to blockchain technology becoming mainstream, and Nexus Contracts are the next step in leading this progression. Existing Smart Contracts have experienced issues in relation to ease of use and scalability due to a Turing complete system. Addressing these issues, Nexus has produced what is in essence a ‘Register-based Contract Engine’, set for release with the Tritium upgrade. Tritium will allow developers to access the technology of Nexus Contracts simply through an API set. Before an explanation of Nexus Contracts is given, some context will be provided as to how conventional Smart Contracts function.
Contracts are self-executing. Their design is to enforce the terms and
conditions of a contract through programmable logic, reducing the need
for third party intermediaries such as brokers and banks. Smart
Contracts are an additional layer of processing above the ledger layer,
i.e what is known as ‘the blockchain’, and are comparable to small
computer programs that hold a state of information. The calculations of
the contract are carried out by the processing nodes of a blockchain,
which change the state of the information. Given that the calculations
or processing is carried out by distributed consensus, the state of a
Smart Contract is immutable.
was the first cryptocurrency with built-in Smart Contract capabilities,
which it calls ‘scripts’. Scripts are not Turing complete and contain
byte code. Ethereum augmented these capabilities into its ‘Turing
Complete Smart Contracts’, which are
generic to developers’ needs. Ethereum gives developers more access to
contract functionality on a blockchain through a custom programming
language called Solidity, which is then compiled into assembly language
that is run on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). The EVM is a ‘Stack-based Virtual Machine’ that processes each instruction in turn.
Though very capable, Ethereum
has experienced some issues in regards to security, performance, and
ease-of-use, predominantly because of its Turing complete design. Some
notable cases include the $75m DAO hack on Ethereum, and the $286m
Parity bug. Vulnerabilities existed due to the large complexity of a
Turing complete system, and the resulting difficulty of resolving bugs
in a protocol written in immutable code. The complexity of operations
that support universal computation or Turing complete designs also limit
scalability. A universal system has a higher degree of complexity, and
can not therefore compete with technology that is designed for more
specialized tasks. An example of this observation would be the
comparison between a CPU (Central Processing Unit) with a ASIC
(Application Specific Integrated Circuit) in the mining of
cryptocurrency. A CPU can’t compete against a SHA256 miner, as its
complexity and design is geared to support universal general
computation, not specialized computation. A similar conclusion could be
drawn when a comparison is made between the system design of Ethereum
(universal), and Nexus (specialized).
Nexus has developed a ‘Register-based Contract Engine’, with greater capabilities than the EVM. Unlike the the EVM, which is defined by only two distinct layers of processing and is dependent on a Turing complete system, the Nexus contract engine is facilitated through the seven individual layers of the Nexus Software Stack, each designated to carry out specialized processes.
third layer of processing is called the Register Layer. Here, the states
of individual pieces of information contained by Nexus Contracts are
recorded in architectural components called registers. Registers are
used by typical computer processors and provide easy access to memory
storage of frequently used information or values. With respect to Nexus
Contracts, each register is owned by a Signature Chain. Therefore, the
ownership and write access of a register is validated by the second
layer, the Ledger Layer. The fourth layer is the Operation Layer which
defines the rules of the state changes to a register, called
‘operations’. The operations are carried out by validating nodes that
change the state of the registers by distributed consensus. The design
provides the required functionality of a contract engine, without the
over complexity and complications of a Turing complete system.
ownership of a register can be transferred providing many proof of
ownership use cases. Examples of such include titles, deeds, digital
certificates and records, agreements, or any other digital means of
representing tangible assets or time-stamped events. A register can also
be owned and governed by another register, creating a
relationship between many users. Relations can be used as proofs on the
Operation Layer to provide additional functionality. An example of this
would be a register that holds metadata representing the ownership of
an item, and it being owned by another ‘token register’. The token
ownership signifies partial ownership of the item, which provides the
possibility for further use cases such as royalty payments with split
or stipulations can also be coded into Nexus Contracts by validation
scripts or Boolean logic. Validation scripts require a transaction to
fulfill a certain set of conditions to execute, which allows a user to
program in stipulations on the exchange of NXS, tokens or any other
digital asset. This allows a user to void transaction orders, place time
locks on funds, or exchange any digital asset without a central
Contracts which will be accessible through an API set will be able to
improve many existing processes, including digital ownership,
tokenization of assets and enterprises, digital rights, royalty
payments, supply chain management, escrow services, financial
applications, legal documentation of digital signatures, and many more.
standards of object registers, operation codes, and API methods will be
defined through working group consensus, to ensure a consistent
connection between developers and users. Nexus borrows a similar model
to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) that provides the working
groups for all RFC (Request for Comments) standards. This is important
to drive a vibrant ecosystem forward. Just as we have seen with the
success of the internet, we hope to continue this success in the next
era of global connection: blockchain, artificial intelligence, and
It is clear that organisations can only operate effectively with easy access to products and services. Likewise, no organisation can continue to grow if late payments and poor procurement processes remain in place. This is where blockchain technology can play a crucial role, in both the modernisation and improvement of the logistics and operations which are vital to the performance of supply chain systems.
With the release of the Tritium Mainnet, application developers will be able to interact with the functionalities of the Nexus blockchain through an easy to use, feature-rich API set. APIs will create user-friendliness for developers who will be able to build in a wide range of languages, and interoperability for existing private systems to interact with the Nexus blockchain. Nexus has designed its software stack based on the Open System Interconnection (OSI) network reference model, with the fifth layer as the API layer.
What is an API?
An API is an Application Programming Interface. While a user interacts with a system through a user interface, an API allows developers to interact through a programmatic interface. The way this works is that the API provides a list or set of simple commands that execute a series of operations, which would otherwise require specialist programming knowledge. This allows a developer to request or submit data to a system providing functionality to a higher-level application. For example, Facebook’s Graph API allows access to “Login with Facebook” and other features of their system.
The distributed validation method provided by a public blockchain or Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) (on-chain) is very secure in comparison to that of a private blockchain (side-chain) or centralized database (off-chain), because it is validated by many nodes forming a global consensus. However, private blockchains which are serviced by their own nodes provide other benefits that are much easier to develop and scale. One such benefit is to record proofs of private, sensitive, or proprietary data that are generally stored in a private database. This provides the private database the ability to edit or delete this data, in order to comply with regulations such as General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), while maintaining the positive qualities of immutable proofs from the private blockchain. An optimum balance between a Public Ledger, Private Ledgers, and Private Databases, will provide the performance and efficiency necessary for global adoption.
Nexus is developing the systems to enable private networks to utilize the public ledger, creating what is essentially a hybrid system, through an array of both private and public ‘template’ use case APIs. Public APIs will be provided by Nexus as open source technology, while Private APIs will be developed with businesses as their proprietary technology.
Nexus welcomes any interested parties to participate in our working groups to help shape the standardization process for the Nexus Software Stack, as we continue to develop the standardization body for DLT, similar to how the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) shapes the internet.
In addition to accessing the Public APIs, developers will be able to build their own Private APIs, providing the privacy of a permissioned system required to keep proprietary information and logic concealed, while harnessing the security of a public blockchain. This is possible through the use of state recording checkpoints between the private and public networks to ensure that agreements in the private network are also recorded in the public network, shown by the diagram below.
Given that only the aggregated state of the private ledger is recorded, sensitive or private data is not stored on the public ledger. Therefore, private APIs can secure proprietary contract logic, such as private supply chains, notaries, consumer verification services, etc., providing private services that the public layers are unable to. Since a private API functions as its own private network that synchronizes to the public network, one can expect the level of reliability and security of DLT. A private network can be operated under a software services license, or by the commissioner of a said API service. The final result, is a robust service that provides interoperability with existing private systems.
Nexus Private API Service for Enterprise range from hosting solutions to full private API buildout. Private APIs can be custom-built either by Nexus on behalf of a private client, or by any third party with or without consultation. Private testnets can also be provided during development to avoid loading the public and final private ledger with redundant data.
It is often claimed that the ratio of demand to supply for blockchain developers is 20:1, which has led to the high costs associated with blockchain development and low business adoption. Since most programmers are already comfortable interacting with an API, building on the Nexus API can be as simple as developing a web-app. Through improvements in accessibility, Nexus is set to significantly reduce the barriers to entry for blockchain technology.
The Nexus Tritium update implements Signature Chains (Sigchains) that enable account-based transactions and create a unique cryptographic identity system on the blockchain. This allows a user to safely transfer and prove ownership of assets and data through advanced contracts.
Sigchains provide a cryptographic identity and a proof of ownership system. When a user publishes, transfers, or leases data, an event is recorded. This allows for a relationship between users and transparent chains of events to be recorded that provide the utility of managing assets and data: titles, deeds, patents, currency, records, music, copyrights, trademarks, websites, medical records etc.
Access to your Sigchain will be through a distributed login system which will generally include a username, password, and a 2FA pin code (Two-Factor Authentication). This can be comparable to logging into an online bank account without a central authority that could hack or control your information. A Sigchain identifies who you are on the blockchain without you having to disclose any personal data, such as birth name or passport number. They also remove the need for a wallet.dat for key storage that is commonly required in legacy blockchain systems.
As we progress into the 21st century, biometrics are becoming increasingly prevalent in our lives. Since a Sigchain is essentially a distributed login system, biometrics could be easily integrated. Though useful, it is important to note that biometrics function well only as a username, not a password. We leave our fingerprints and imprints of our face in digital media all over the world, so we wouldn’t want biometrics to be used in the way many devices use them today.
Unique Routing Identity
Locator / ID Separation Protocol (LISP) on the Network IP Address Layer decouples the endpoint identifiers (EIDs) from routing locators (RLOC’s), providing static addresses while roaming across many networks (Wi-Fi’s, Cellular, Satellite, etc.). By coupling the Sigchain with an EID, the routing identity of any node can be verified through the ledger. This prevents an endpoint from spoofing an EID, and provides the ability to discern the reputation and reliability of who one is communicating with. The result of this is the reduction of fraud, hacking, fake accounts, and identity theft for both consumers and service providers.
Signature Chain Process
A small amount of Proof-of-Work is required to create a Sigchain. The first event of every Sigchain is the creation of the Genesis transaction and the corresponding GenesisID which registers it on the Ledger Layer. A user can then create a register that represents an account, token, some other digital data or asset. The event is witnessed by a consensus of nodes that verify the cryptographic proof corresponding to the Sigchain.
The diagram below shows the transference of a patent register and the corresponding balance transfer of NXS. The transfer of the patent is conditional on the required debit or commitment of funds. If the validation script evaluates to true (REQUIRE DEBIT), then a temporal proof can be produced, allowing the corresponding OP_CREDIT and OP_CLAIM to take place.
Nexus Signature Chains
Why Signature Chains?
Sigchains create user-friendliness through a distributed login system. They facilitate account-based transactions which replace the clunky legacy UTxO (Unspent Transaction Output) architecture, making transactions and their corresponding verification process lightweight and efficient. They enable easy prevention of dust spam attacks, allowing for low cost transactions.
Sigchains also provide additional resistance to both classical and theoretical quantum computing attacks. This is achieved by updating the key-pairs after every transaction and obfuscating them until they are used. They also provide a key-management authorization system.
Different forms of reputation can be established and recorded by a Sigchain and verified through the ledger. These reputations can be referenced and utilized by other distributed applications. Sigchains are also fundamental to the recording of Trust which supports the security of the 3DC (Three Dimensional Chain).