SOFTWARE STACK

The Nexus Software Stack interweaves with the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model, providing additional layers that serve specialized purposes within our blockchain architecture. The following will introduce each of the layers.

INTERFACE

The interface is the user space, which can be accompanied by various technologies from AR/VR to mobile interfaces. Our official Interface layer provides a platform for developers to contribute their modules and applications as an extension to the wallet.

LOGICAL

This is the first layer of the developer application space which forms the back-end of most applications. This layer interacts directly with the API below it, and provides functionality that does not depend on direct access to the blockchain. We postulate that in the future this layer will be driven by AI systems.

API

Nexus contracts (also known as smart contracts) are accessible through an API, allowing programmers to use their language of choice while providing interoperability with existing applications, rather than using a Turing-complete language. Our public APIs are based in HTTP and operate with GET or POST using form encoding or JSON, and an SDK in Python is available. 

OPERATION

These instructions or ‘operations’ act on registers, and define more complex contract logic. They include primitives such as ‘Debit’ and ‘Credit’, and conditional statements that reside as a ‘contract’ between two parties. The majority of our smart contract functionality comes from the interaction of operations and registers, which is made immutable through the ledger layer.

REGISTER

The Register layer is the space where applications record their state and objects such as digital assets, providing data management utility to the ledger layer. This layer also contains a 64-bit register-based Virtual Machine for contract processing which differs significantly from other smart contract architectures.

LEDGER

The Ledger manages rights and ownership between parties using cryptographic primitives such as hashing, digital signatures, and consensus protocols. It is composed of signature chains for user-level states, and the proposed architecture of the Three-Dimensional Chain (3DC) for the global state, the latter of which is under development through the TAO framework. 

Signature Chains

A signature chain is comparable to a personal blockchain accessible by a username, password, and pin. The security can also be augmented with various hardware password managers or biometric usernames. The key pair to your signature chain is changed with every transaction and the public key is hidden until used. The result of this is a high security standard with support for multiple signature schemes such as FALCON for increased quantum resistance.

Consensus

Two Proof of Work (PoW) channels (Prime and Hashing) and one Proof of Stake (PoS) channel are used to secure the network. Consensus is balanced between all three channels providing high resistance to 51% attacks. As the TAO framework is developed, these three forms of consensus will constitute the three layers of the 3DC.

Reputation Mechanism

Nexus implements a reputation mechanism called ‘trust’ that records the consistent time that a node contributes to the validation process. Trust decreases three times faster than it accrues and translates into a variable stake reward of between 0.5% to 3% per annum.

NETWORK

The Network is responsible for the end-to-end communication between nodes, and forms the foundation of the ledger. Any scaling solution has to address how the network propagates messages. To do this, Nexus has integrated ‘overlays’ which provide IPv6 functionality to the network that allow the controlling of IP addressing through cryptography.

Overlays

Our overlay of choice is LISP (Location Indicator Separation Protocol). This creates better connectivity between peers as the overlay functions as a layer of ‘elevated trust’ to the internet when combined with the ledger (blockchain), which increases the safety, reliability, and security of the online experience.

IPv6

The LISP overlay combines IPv6 Crypto EIDs with Signature Chains, enabling a fully encrypted peer-to-peer communication system and identification of the cryptographic keys through the ledger.

Multicast

Through the Amine and Obsidian upgrades, we will deploy multicast links for message propagation which will give us higher degrees of scalability in comparison to existing blockchain models that generally have exponential routing complexity.

SOFTWARE STACK

The Nexus Software Stack interweaves with the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model, providing additional layers that serve specialized purposes within our blockchain architecture. The following will introduce each of the layers.

INTERFACE

The interface is the user space, which can be accompanied by various technologies from AR/VR to mobile interfaces. Our official Interface layer provides a platform for developers to contribute their modules and applications as an extension to the wallet.

LOGICAL

This is the first layer of the developer application space which forms the back-end of most applications. This layer interacts directly with the API below it, and provides functionality that does not depend on direct access to the blockchain. We postulate that in the future this layer will be driven by AI systems.

API

Nexus contracts (also known as smart contracts) are accessible through an API, allowing programmers to use their language of choice while providing interoperability with existing applications, rather than using a Turing-complete language. Our public APIs are based in HTTP and operate with GET or POST using form encoding or JSON, and an SDK in Python is available. 

OPERATION

These instructions or ‘operations’ act on registers, and define more complex contract logic. They include primitives such as ‘Debit’ and ‘Credit’, and validation scripts to set conditions on the execution of contracts. The majority of our smart contract functionality comes from the interaction of operations and registers, which is made immutable through the ledger layer.

REGISTER

The Register layer creates the space where applications can record their state or objects such as digital assets, providing data management utility to the ledger layer. This layer also contains a 64-bit register-based Virtual Machine for contract processing which differs significantly from other smart contract architectures.

LEDGER

The Ledger manages rights and ownership between parties using cryptographic primitives such as hashing, digital signatures, and consensus protocols. It is composed of signature chains for user-level states, and the proposed architecture of the Three-Dimensional Chain (3DC) for the global state, the latter of which is under development through the TAO framework. 

Signature Chains

A signature chain is comparable to a personal blockchain accessible by a username, password, and pin. The security can also be augmented with various hardware password managers or biometric usernames. The key pair to your signature chain is changed with every transaction and the public key is hidden until used. The result of this is a high security standard with support for multiple signature schemes such as FALCON for increased quantum resistance.

Consensus

Two Proof of Work (PoW) channels (Prime and Hashing) and one Proof of Stake (PoS) channel are used to secure the network. Consensus is balanced between all three channels providing high resistance to 51% attacks. As the TAO framework is developed, these three forms of consensus will constitute the three layers of the 3DC.

Reputation Mechanism

Nexus implements a reputation mechanism called ‘trust’ that records the consistent time that a node contributes to the validation process. Trust decreases three times faster than it accrues and translates into a variable stake reward of between 0.5% to 3% per annum.

NETWORK

The Network is responsible for the end-to-end communication between nodes, and forms the foundation of the ledger. Any scaling solution has to address how the network propagates messages. To do this, Nexus has integrated ‘overlays’ which provide IPv6 functionality to the network that allow the controlling of IP addressing through cryptography.

Overlays

Our overlay of choice is LISP (Location Indicator Separation Protocol). This creates better connectivity between peers as the overlay functions as a layer of ‘elevated trust’ to the internet when combined with the ledger (blockchain), which increases the safety, reliability, and security of the online experience.

IPv6

The LISP overlay combines IPv6 Crypto EIDs with Signature Chains, enabling a fully encrypted peer-to-peer communication system and identification of the cryptographic keys through the ledger.

Multicast

Through the Amine and Obsidian upgrades, we will deploy multicast links for message propagation which will give us higher degrees of scalability in comparison to existing blockchain models that generally have exponential routing complexity.